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https://web.archive.org/web/20180909154753/https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:N9hRNgQ1wZgJ:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Zhongjing

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{{Multiple issues|
{{BLP sources|date=April 2018}}
{{unreliable sources|date=April 2018}}
{{original research|date=September 2018}}
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{{Incomplete|date=September 2018}}

'''Liu Zhongjing''' ({{zh|c=劉仲敬}}), also known as '''William Liu'''<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161220115013/https://twitter.com/LiuZhongjing|title=William Liu {{!}} 劉仲敬 (@LiuZhongjing) {{!}} Twitter|date=2016-12-20}}</ref> and by his [[cult follower]]s as 阿姨 ([[Aunt]]ie), is a [[Chinese historiography|Chinese historian]] and translator of history and [[political philosophy]] works from English.

Liu was born in [[Zizhong]], [[Sichuan Province]]. He adheres to [[traditionalist conservatism]] of the [[analytic philosophy]] school dominant in the [[Anglophone world]], and is considered an important figure in the [[pro-Western]] [[ultra-right]] in [[contemporary China]]. He advocates that the gravest tragedy in the [[Timeline of Chinese history|modern history of China]] was caused by China's painstaking maintenance of the unity and integrity of its own territory after it inherited it from the doomed [[Qing Empire]]. He argues that the current state of the mainstream models of the [[Western world|Western]] [[democratic system]] (with characteristics like [[consensus decision making]], [[welfare state]] and over-suppression of [[Proto-state|parastate]] actors) will prove fatal, as evident in the appearance of forces aimed at undermining it due to its weaknesses such as the [[ISIS]]. He also advocates that the necessary fail-safe must include multiple layers of power structures, also that the "[[landed gentry]]", referring to civilian [[oligarchy|oligarchs]] with substantial [[private wealth]] and local [[cultural heritage]]s, should be included as [[spokespeople]] for [[Regionalism (politics)|regional communities]], in order to avoid depletive extraction of rooted communities by the state or other [[Rootless cosmopolitan|trans-regional]] [[dominant power]]s.

Liu currently lives in the United States.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.letscorp.net/archives/104120|title=Internet gossip: Liu Zhongjing has run the road to the United States (網傳劉仲敬跑路美利堅)|date=2016-04-05|work=牆外樓}}</ref>{{Better source|date=September 2018}}

==Biography==

Born in 1974, Liu graduated from [[West China Medical Center of Sichuan University]] in 1996 and have since served in a [[Xinjiang]] local [[police department]] as a [[forensic scientist]] for 10 years, during which he felt the acute inter-ethnic tensions in the [[Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region]]. He obtained a [[Master's degree]] on [[world history studies]] at the [[Sichuan University]] in 2012. Liu then studied for his [[doctoral thesis]] on [[history studies]] in [[Wuhan University]].

While a scholar on Western [[political philosophy]], [[Chinese history]] and [[world history]], Liu's publications and academic discourses generated a [[cult following]] especially in China's contemporary [[liberalism|liberal]], [[pro-Western]], [[Ethnic minorities in China|non-Han Chinese]] [[ethnic nationalist]], [[Han Chinese subgroups|Han Chinese]] [[regionalism (politics)|regionalist]] and [[right-wing]] circles. His highly controversial advocacies and views on [[civilization]]al, [[nation]]al, [[wikt:modern|modern]], [[ethnic]], [[regional]], [[religious]], [[Social class|class]], [[racial]] and [[ideological]] [[identitarianism]]s, strongly influenced both by [[Oswald Spengler]] and [[Ayn Rand]], are dubbed 姨學 (Auntology, the study of Aunt) by his cult followers.

One of the innovations of [[Auntology]] is the division of the [[modern world]] into [[Three-World Model|three spheres]]: 1. The [[Wilsonian]] Sphere: where dominant forces and institutions adhere to common [[Modernity|modern value]]s which are inherent of [[Western world|Western]] and [[Christian]] origins, and maintain a system of [[Common good|collective safety]], 2. The [[Hobbesian]] Sphere: where [[pragmatism|pragmatic]], [[Philosophical realism|realistic]], [[Machiavellian]] and [[opportunistic]] players somehow ensure limited [[endemic]] dominance by submitting to Wilsonian [[supremacism|supremacy]] and 3. The [[Darwinian]] Sphere: where the haphazard exercises of power by [[self-serving]] forces, fall far short of order or [[Civility|modern politics]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.douban.com/note/530931809/|title=A Brief Discussion on Liu Zhongjing's Phenomenon (略論劉仲敬現象)|publisher=}}</ref>

Auntology is also often interpreted by its followers as a call to abandon the construction of a [[Chinese unification|united]] [[Chinese nation]], [[China proper|Chinese state]], [[Han Chinese]] [[Chinese nationalism|nation]], [[Zhonghua Minzu]], [[imperial China]] or [[party state]], for a more [[Fragmentation (economics)|fragmented]] and often [[De-Sinicization|de-sinicize]]d picture of [[Huaxia]], [[East Asian cultural sphere|East Asian sphere]] or collectivity of regional ethnic communities. Though harboring [[romanic]] views on [[tribalism]] and [[Neo-medievalism|medieval feudalism]], Liu in fact rarely agrees with the [[essentialist]] veneration of any particular ethnic culture as [[self-generating]]. Rather, he quite strongly agrees with a [[diffusionist]] position on [[History of globalization|Human Civilization]].

Though influenced heavily by [[Arnold J. Toynbee|Toynbee]], [[Ellsworth Huntington|Huntington]] and [[Oswald Spengler|Spengler]], Liu does not adhere consistently with the Spenglerian and essentialist notion that a set number of civilizations, such as the [[Islamic]] or [[Indo-Aryan languages|Indic]], are discreet organisms fated to be independent of each other. The diffusionist tendency of Liu brings him more affinity with [[Yukichi Fukuzawa]] and [[Ziya Gökalp|Ziya Gok-Alp]] when it comes to the interpretation of [[Nationalism|national]] and [[Clash of Civilizations|civilizational]] identities.

In a way, Liu's theory on world history is a synthesis between [[Spengler]]'s [[wikt:cyclical|cyclical]] model on [[Cultural determinism|civilizations]], and the [[World System Theory]] from the [[political left]].

Liu became a [[born-again]] Christian in April 2016 at a church in [[Sha Tin]], [[Hong Kong]], entering the [[Christendom|Christian fold]] through [[the Shouters]] [[evangelical]] movement. Liu [[emigrated]] to the [[United States]] soon after that.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.letscorp.net/archives/104131|title=Liu Zhongjing: Newborn (新生)|website=牆外樓}}</ref>

==Views and claims==
{{translating|劉仲敬|Mardarin|zh}}

===Anti-Chinese nation===
Liu Zhongjing denies China's current mainstream [[Chinese nationalism]] ([[China]] identity, [[Chinese people]] identity, [[Chinese unification]], requirements for [[irredentism|territorial integrity]]), the interpretation of Chinese history by the [[Nationalist Party of China]] and the [[Communist Party of China]], [[anti-Japanese]] trends in modern times, the [[Northern Expedition]], and [[revolutionary diplomacy]] (abolishing all [[unequal treaty|unequal treaties]], repossessing the [[Concession (territory)|concessions]]), and the Chinese Communist Party system ([[Leninist]] rule). He believe that these have caused great calamities in modern China and in the future<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/劉仲敬-文明的灰燼-中國在世界上的位置-35d74fae4d09|title=The ashes of civilization - China's position in the world (文明的灰燼——中國在世界上的位置)|author=Liu Zhongjing|date=2016-08-31|website=Medium}}</ref>, and believe that between the [[First World War]] and the [[Second World War]], the Chinese Nationalist Party and the Communist Party of China was used and controlled by the [[Soviet Union]], making China as a [[human shield]] of the Soviet Union to against Japan, resulting in an unnecessary [[Second Sino-Japanese War]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/二十世紀遠東的博弈-日本與蘇聯-一-9b43c6f9eaa5|title=The game of the Far East in the 20th century - Japan and the Soviet Union (Part I) {{!}} 二十世紀遠東的博弈——日本與蘇聯(一)|author=Liu Zhongjing|date=2016-11-29|website=Medium}}</ref>

====Deconstruction of Chinese nation and Han nation====

Liu Zhongjing has always stressed that the concept of [[Chinese nationalism]] is just as same as [[Ottomanism]] (empire super-nationalism), is better to fail. Both these nationalisms want to forcibly unify different ethnic groups into one nation, they are castles in the air. The cost of the success for Chinese nation is relying on and binding to [[Leninism]] (only [[Communist International]] has the ability to invent China, if Chinese reject the Communist International, they will attribute themselves to nothingness);<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/共產國際與中華民族-c1dd8aa692a7|title=Communist International and Chinese nation (共產國際與中華民族)|author=Liu Zhongjing|date=2017-01-18|website=Medium}}</ref> And even if Han nationalists (pan-cultural nationalism) are willing to abandon land outside [[China proper]], the ambition is still too great. Similar to [[Pan-Slavism|Slavic nation]], [[Pan-Germanism|German nation]], and [[Pan-Latinism|Latin nation]], Han nation should not be unified.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/民族發明分類學-becac22fddfd|title=Classification of Nation Invention (民族發明分類學)|author=Liu Zhongjing|date=2018-01-29|website=Medium}}</ref> He also pointed out that the reason why Chinese nation has fallen into the present is the inevitable result of that [[Chiang Kai-shek]] has often compared himself to [[Mustafa Kemal Atatürk|Kemal]], but refused to abandon Ottomanism and invent small nation as Kemal did. If Chiang Kai-shek willing to admit [[Manchuria|Manchurian]] independence, willing to abandon the invention of Chinese nation, and willing to invent a [[Wuyue|Goetian nation]], his reign in the five provinces of [[Jiangnan|Jiangdong]] would be difficult to subvert.

Moreover, the [[Anti-Chinese]] actions of [[Southeast Asia]] must be attributed to [[Chinese nationalism]], [[communism]], and [[Leninism]]. Chinese nationalism makes China believe that all Chinese ethnic people in the world belong to China's government, causing the crisis that Southeast Asia was annexed by China, the dependence of Chinese nationalism on Leninism means that if Southeast Asian countries want to [[Anti-communism|oppose communism]], they must oppose Chinese.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/國際主義格局下的東亞民族構建-下-9c2125a0b81|title=East Asian Nationality Construction under the Pattern of Internationalism (Part II) {{!}} 國際主義格局下的東亞民族構建(下)|author=Liu Zhongjing|date=2017-10-31|website=Medium}}</ref>

{{cquote|First of all, [[Han Chinese|Han]] is not a nation, not even an ethnic groups. It is anti-ethnic, it is an empire, it is the successor of [[Qin empire]], is anti-ethnic things. If you say that [[Qu Yuan]] belongs only to [[Chu (state)|Chu state]], [[Lu Zhonglian]] only belongs to [[Qi (state)|Qi state]], and [[Meng Tian]] only belongs to [[Qin (state)|Qin state]]. They each have their own special ethnic identity, and this point can still be set up. However, in the real history, Han dynasty was an unrooted universal empire, it is difficult to find a special community identity for all citizens.}}

====Fellah theory====

Liu Zhongjing believes that the Imperial Empire that began with [[Qin dynasty]] belonged to the [[Fellah]] nation. The Fellah Empires actually have only population, not nation. People do not live in their own community city-state, but live naked under the administrative power of the imperial bureaucracy. The Fellah empire feared locality, so it turns the area outside the capital into [[province]]s, uses the [[county system]] to format places. The more people who have survived in the Fellahization state, the more [[morality|primitive qualities]] they have forgotten.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/不進則退學-2111908906ee|title=Strive to move on or fall behind (不進則退學)|author=Liu Zhongjing|date=2017-11-15|website=Medium}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/一點人生的經驗-如何統治中國和造福世界-624ddd57506f|title=A little life experience: how to rule China and benefit the world (一點人生經驗:如何統治中國和造福世界)|author=Liu Zhongjing|date=2017-02-15|website=Medium}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://plus.google.com/+夏格明/posts/325ikLSJEb1|title=姨:費拉的性格是欺軟怕硬而且能力很差,匪諜習慣依靠這種人。他們的地位就是小推車農民工,沒有工資和軍餉,送到朝鮮去消耗美國人的子彈。如果你心軟不肯打,他就贏...}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://zine.la/article/1e18a1b04db411e7ad3d52540d79d783|title=[Special] How to deal the Fellah around you? - Aunt teaches you life experience (Part I) {{!}}【特典】身邊都是費拉怎麼辦?——阿姨教你人生經驗(一)|website=冬川豆 {{!}} 人間朝暮's Zine column}}</ref>

{{cquote|There is no [[Han Chinese|Han nation]], there is only the Han people {{=}} the Fellah people {{=}} the legal captivities.}}

{{cquote|The Chinese know that they are despicable [[slave]]s. If someone treats them by their true [[social class|class identity]], they will secretly admire them, they feel that these people have eyesight and judgments about other things are probably right. If someone respects the Chinese and regards them as lives with souls, conscience, and shame, the Chinese will doubt the judgment of these people for the same reason, including the judgment of other things not related to China, not only they will not trust and follow these people, but they will feel that these people are suitable for deception and plunder.}}

{{cquote|Fellah don't distinguish weakness and generosity. If you don't abuse them, they will bite you. Commie abuse them, you can't blame commie completely. You want to keep Fellah away from you, so you should not make them think you've lost, and you have to pretend to be a winner. This is the opposite of dealing with the [[white left]]... If he apologizes for his insulting of China, the [[anti-Japanese]] masses must say that he is not sincere, and then he must be beaten by insatiable masses, until he can't stand, turn his face again. If he uses rogue method to deal with the untouchables, they would rather suspect that people backstage are very hard. If I apologize for my [[Nanking Massacre]] denial in that year, then I would be finished. Now, Fellah think I am an agent of the Party's big brother.}}

{{cquote|Fellah are actually very easy to be manipulated or exploited. They have no personal rights or boundary consciousness. It can be said to be a species that will never be able to grow spiritually. If you are determined to exploit or to infinity expand your own interests, living in Fellah people is extremely beneficial to you. You can easily exploit them or dominate them, just use their character weaknesses to play with them, use them as your tools, and put their interests in your own name. But there is a bit bad, after you do this, yourself will be trapped in the cycle of [[Sadomasochism|SM]], you will inevitably fall into their circle. One day, you will run into SM masters who are more powerful than you. One day, you will encounter SM masters who are more powerful than you, and you will end up becoming the object of being played.}}

====Nukelogy====

Liu Zhongjing believes that "[[nuclear attack|nukelogy]]" is equivalent to [[God]]'s [[justice]] and advocates to "nuke" the east from [[Xi'an]].{{Citation needed|date=July 2018}}

{{cquote|
I thought about this in [[Harbin]] yesterday, questioning the nukelogy is very close to questioning the justice of God.

Since [[Japan]]'s brief impulsive bloody-vigor sins need (to nuke) [[Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki|Hiroshima]], [[Shina (word)|Shina]]'s long-term deliberate sinister deceit must need (to nuke) the east from [[Xi'an]]-stan, the relative degree of the two must exceed the fate of [[Germany]] and [[Russia]], otherwise it cannot satisfy the so-called [[Proportionality (law)|proportional principle]] of jurisprudence.
}}

===Views on the First Opium War===

Liu Zhongjing thinks that the [[First Opium War]] "It is not the British initiative to expand, it is the result of in the process of maintaining free trades, the British have been forced to administer judicial arbitration in countries that are really unruly. In general, the mistakes made by those rulers infringe private property and seizure foreign property, or bankrupt because of squandering waste, cause implicated in foreign business, unable to afford debts, etc."<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/letscorp_archive/archives/95146|title=Liu Zhongjing: Concise East Asian History in the 20th Century (簡明20世紀東亞史)|work=牆外樓}}</ref>

===Cathaysianism===
<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/諸亞與諸夏-e8748e3b7633|title=諸亞與諸夏|author=Liu Zhongjing|date=2016-11-27|website=Medium}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@cathaysianculturesoc/諸亞與諸夏發刊詞-8829ca4e267e|title=Cathaysianism Foreword (諸亞與諸夏發刊詞)|author=諸夏文化傳播協會|date=2017-02-12|website=Medium}}</ref>

===Prediction of "the Great Flood"===
<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.letscorp.net/archives/104149|title=Auntie's trip to Beijing and secret cheats (阿姨北京之行秘傳心法要義)|work=牆外樓}}</ref>

===Comments on ISIS===

===Defense of Japanese war crimes===

==Reviews==
{{translating|劉仲敬|Catonese|zh-yue}}

===Inside the People's Republic of China===
[[Xu Jilin]] (professor of [[East China Normal University]]) on ''[[The Beijing News]]'': The student who just passed the 30 years old is a rare geek, a crazy scholar, and read this book, deeply shocked. His great knowledge and understanding of the ancient, the modern, Chinese and Western, is a rare genius in today's academic circles.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://epaper.bjnews.com.cn/html/2013-11/16/content_478234.htm|title=Uncertain history? (不確定的歷史?)|website=New Beijing News}}</ref>

[[Li Erke]] (freelance writer) on ''[[Southern Metropolis Daily]]'': It should be acknowledged that his (Liu Zhongjing's) reading, memory and amazing association seem to be blameless, but factual error, lack of thought, just peddling the combination of (pseudo) Western centralism, (pseudo) England conservatism, (pseudo) Spengler-style civilization seasons, the (pseudo) new world order, (pseudo) [[Gongyang Zhuan]], etc. A political philosophy called "small community" backed by virtue, via "scientific path" and "grass ash line".<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://epaper.oeeee.com/epaper/C/html/2015-11/15/content_11410.htm|title=How does a "prophet" make people judge? (有一種「先知」讓人如何評判?)|author=李爾克|date=2015-11-15|website=Southern Metropolis Daily}}</ref> The so-called controversy caused by Liu Zhongjing did not actually enter the field of vision of specific historical issues in the study of professional historiography. In essence, a political gesture. The reason why he popular is because the main controversial positions and methods are rough, but the scholars with deep thoughts are unable to fully express their views for various reasons.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://epaper.oeeee.com/epaper/C/html/2016-01/11/content_2463.htm|title=Liu Zhongjing's three faces (劉仲敬的三個面相)|author=李爾克|date=2015-11-15|website=Southern Metropolis Daily}}</ref>

[[Zhang Yaojie]] (researcher of [[Chinese National Academy of Arts]]) on ''[[Yuehaifeng]]'': There are two articles that are solid and rigorous, giving a good impression, but (Liu Zhongjing) refused to give a minimum of hard work in the examination and excavation, but only opportunistic interpretation via the classical Chinese with half-literal and half-vernacular, which [[Guo Tingyi]] and other senior historians have already explained clearly and directly, and the words are not satisfactory. Then, with the addition of the traditional Chinese [[Yijing]] and push-back styles, the guessing and fortune-telling thing goes down, and "this is right and wrong, and that is also right and wrong"-ish slogan to shock people, surprisingly winning.<ref>{{Cite journal|author=張耀傑|title=Liu Zhongjing's flaw and exaggeration (劉仲敬的硬傷與浮誇)|url=http://mall.cnki.net/magazine/magadetail/YHFY201506.htm|journal=Yuehaifeng (粵海風2015年06期)}}</ref>

[[Yu Shicun]] (Chinese poet from the Department of Chinese Language and Literature of [[Peking University]]) on [[ifeng]]: Not only Wang Yi, Li Yingqiang, even Liu Zhongjing believed in Christianity, but also went to the United States. Liu Zhongjing has a great knowledge and charm in the group of young intellectuals. But his way of life and behavior proves that these people have not found something to live in... and in the process of recognizing this way of life, they also have to produce creativity, which is the most important.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://news.ifeng.com/opinion/gaojian/special/ysc|title=Readers who reading and doing differently, can mostly be regarded as cultural crimping (知行不一的讀書人頂多算文化掮客)|author=余世存|date=2016-05-30|website=ifeng}}</ref>

===Disputes of translation works===

David ([[Douban]] Netizen) wrote a 20,000-word article entitled ''Shame [[Yan Fu]], offend [[David Hume|Hume]]: A Comment on Liu Zhongjing's Translation of The History of England'', complaints to the translator Liu's low level of English, poor historical literacy, frivolous translation attitude, and numerous wrong names. David said this book that letting Hume often recall in the late years, was famous together with ''The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire'' by Edward Gibbon and ''The History of Scotland'' by William Robertson, can be called great work of the 18th century "philosophy history", was ruined by Chinese translation.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://book.douban.com/review/6813564|title=Shame Yan Fu, offend David Hume (羞煞嚴復,氣煞休謨)|author=David|date=2014-08-10|work=Douban}}</ref>

For another work, ''The Ideals of the East'' by Liu Zhongjing, scholar [[Liu Zheng]] published an article in ''[[Southern Weekend]]'' saying that the language of the translation is dry and powerless (just unimportant), the important matter is too many mistakes. The translator's English vocabulary is rushed, and often misunderstood the original intention, he has not been able to extract useful ingredients from the succinct Japanese-to-English translation for enhancing his translations. As a result, the mistakes of people names and places names are everywhere.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.infzm.com/content/126073|title=這樣的岡倉天心譯本要不得|author=劉錚|date=2017-07-25|website=Southern Weekend}}</ref>

June 29, 2017, ''Southern Weekend'' published the article ''The Dreamer Ayn Rand and the "strange people" Liu Zhongjing'' by Tian Fangmeng (lecturer at [[Beijing Normal University]]). On July 4th, it published ''Sampling Report of Liu Zhongjing's Ayn Rand Biography'' on its app. In two articles, Tian Fangmeng used the investigation principle of social science to conduct a sample test on Liu Zhongjing's text of ''Ayn Rand Biography'' which published in 2015. He pointed out that Liu Zhongjing used his own style to abbreviate and rewrite [[Anne Heller]]'s ''Ayn Rand and the World She Made'', suspected of [[plagiarism]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_1728793|date=2017-07-10|title=國內思想週報:劉仲敬被控抄襲、鼓浪嶼申遺成功|website=www.thepaper.cn}}</ref>
{{cquote|I doubt, just doubt, Liu's writing process is like this: first set up the narrative framework, then select second-hand materials for abbreviations and rewrites, and add their own comment texts to package them into new works.}}

===Overseas===
[[Liang Jing]] (political commentator) on [[Radio Free Asia]]: A global perspective and an eloquent historical analysis, subtly criticizing the historical view of the Great Unification. There are many wonderful high theories, showing his talents, rare academic honesty and courage. However, Liu's history theory and view, like [[Lee Teng-hui]]'s "Chinese 7-block theory", can mislead the Chinese people. Liu underestimated the vitality of the culture of the Great Unification, and I could not accept Liu's "destiny tendency". However, if honest scholars like Liu Zhongjing can continue to be tolerated, even encouraged, they will increase hope. By rediscovering history, the Chinese will gain imagination to create the future.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.rfa.org/cantonese/commentaries/lj/liangjing_com-08192014084012.html/story_main?searchterm:utf8:ustring=%E5%8A%89%E4%BB%B2%E6%95%AC&encoding=traditional|author=梁京|date=2014-08-19|title=發現歷史與創造未來|website=Radio Free Asia}}</ref>

[[Zhou Xian]] (Hong Kong financial commentator) on [[Ming Pao]]: Liu Zhongjing is the most admired folk historian in recent years. Many people disagree with Liu Zhongjing's bold historical view and think that there are many mistakes. But... a person with so many new insights, if 30% of his opinions are correct, it's already great.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.mpfinance.com/fin/daily2.php?node=1479326253767&issue=20161117|author=周顯|date=2016-11-17|title=炒股理由都是吹出來|website=Ming Pao}}</ref>

==Literary works==
{{citation needed|date=September 2018}}

===Translation===
* ''Flying Serpents and Dragons: The Story of Mankind's Reptilian Past'', R. A. Boulay, 2010
* ''[[The Chemistry of Death]]'', [[Simon Beckett]], 2011
* ''The Starchild Skull -- Genetic Enigma or Human-Alien Hybrid?'', Lloyd Pye, 2012
* ''[[The History of England (Hume)|The History of England]]'', [[David Hume]], 2012
* ''[[Swallows and Amazons series|Swallows and Amazons]] #9: [[The Big Six]]'', [[Arthur Ransome]], 2013
* ''Swallows and Amazons #12: [[Great Northern?]]'', Arthur Ransome, 2013
* ''[[The History of England from the Accession of James the Second|The History of England]]'', [[Thomas Macaulay]], 2014
* ''The Origin and Principles of the American Revolution, Compared with the Origin and Principles of the French Revolution'', [[Friedrich Gentz]], 2014
* ''A Small Man in a Big World'', [[Gérard Rancinan]], [[Caroline Gaudriault]], [[Francis Fukuyama]], 2014
* ''The Healing Sun: Sunlight and Health in the 21st Century'', Richard Hobday, 2014
* ''[[Puck of Pook's Hill]]'', [[Rudyard Kipling]], 2015
* ''[[Just So Stories]], Rudyard Kipling'', 2015
* ''The Ideals of the East'', [[Okakura Kakuzō]], 2017

===Original===

* ''The Causes and Outcomes of Events during the Republic of China: 1911-1949'', 2013
* ''From Huaxia to China'', 2014
* ''Ayn Rand: Biography and Ideas'', 2015
* ''Classic and History: Historical Construct in the Huaxia World'', 2015
* ''Foresights and Hindsights: Ideas, Patterns and Traditions'', 2015
* ''The Fallen of Modern History (volume of Late Qing and Beiyang): Liu Zhongjing comments on modern people'', 2016
* ''The Fallen of Modern History (volume of KMT and CCP): Liu Zhongjing comments on modern people'', 2016
* ''The Clues of the Far East: the Input of Western Order and the Evolution of China'', 2017
* ''China Depression: a Brief History of Inner Asia Leading East Asia'', 2017
* ''The Fallen of Modern History (volume of Literati in the Republic of China)'', 2018

==References==
{{reflist|1}}

==External links==
* [https://twitter.com/LiuZhongjing Liu Zhongjing on Twitter]
* [https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing Liu Zhongjing on Medium]
* [https://www.smashwords.com/profile/view/williamliu Liu Zhongjing on Smashwords]
* [http://zdxy1985.blogspot.com/2018/08/20180630.html List of Mr. Liu Zhongjing all articles (As of June 30, 2018)]

{{Authority control}}

{{improve categories|date=February 2018}}

{{DEFAULTSORT:Liu Zhongjing, William}}
[[Category:1974 births]]
[[Category:Living people]]
[[Category:21st-century American historians]]
[[Category:21st-century American non-fiction writers]]
[[Category:21st-century Chinese historians]]
[[Category:21st-century Chinese writers]]
[[Category:21st-century Christians]]
[[Category:21st-century American male writers]]
[[Category:American Christians]]
[[Category:American historians]]
[[Category:American libertarians]]
[[Category:American people of Chinese descent]]
[[Category:American political writers]]
[[Category:Chinese emigrants to the United States]]
[[Category:Chinese male writers]]
[[Category:Chinese non-fiction writers]]
[[Category:Chinese political writers]]
[[Category:Converts to Christianity]]
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{{Multiple issues|
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'''Liu Zhongjing''' ({{zh|c=劉仲敬}}), also known as '''William Liu'''{{citation needed|date=July 2018}} and by his [[cult follower]]s as 阿姨 ([[Aunt]]ie), is a [[Chinese historiography|Chinese historian]] and translator of history and [[political philosophy]] works from English.

Liu was born in [[Zizhong]], [[Sichuan Province]]. He adheres to [[traditionalist conservatism]] of the [[analytic philosophy]] school dominant in the [[Anglophone world]], and is considered an [[important figure]] in the [[pro-Western]] [[ultra-right]] in [[contemporary China]]. He advocates that the gravest tragedy in the [[Timeline of Chinese history|modern history of China]] was caused by China's painstaking maintenance of the unity and integrity of its own territory after it inherited it from the doomed [[Qing Empire]]. He argues that the current state of the [[mainstream]] models of the [[Western world|Western]] [[democratic system]] (with characteristics like [[consensus decision making]], [[welfare state]] and over-suppression of [[Proto-state|parastate]] actors) will prove fatal, as evident in the appearance of forces aimed at undermining it due to its weaknesses such as the [[ISIS]]. He also advocates that the necessary fail-safe must include multiple layers of power structures, also that the "[[landed gentry]]", referring to civilian [[oligarchy|oligarchs]] with substantial [[private wealth]] and local [[cultural heritage]]s, should be included as [[spokespeople]] for [[Regionalism (politics)|regional communities]], in order to avoid depletive extraction of rooted communities by the state or other [[Rootless cosmopolitan|trans-regional]] [[dominant power]]s.

Liu currently lives in the [[United States]].<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.letscorp.net/archives/104120|title=網傳劉仲敬跑路美利堅-牆外樓|work=牆外樓|access-date=2018-07-13}}</ref>

==Biography==

Born in 1974, Liu graduated from [[West China Medical Center of Sichuan University]] in 1996 and have since served in a [[Xinjiang]] local [[police department]] as a [[forensic scientist]] for 10 years, during which he felt the acute inter-ethnic tensions in the [[Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region]]. He obtained a [[Master's degree]] on [[world history studies]] at the [[Sichuan University]] in 2012. Liu then studied for his [[doctoral thesis]] on [[history studies]] in [[Wuhan University]].

While a scholar on Western [[political philosophy]], [[Chinese history]] and [[world history]], Liu's publications and academic discourses generated a [[cult following]] especially in China's contemporary [[liberalism|liberal]], [[pro-Western]], [[Ethnic minorities in China|non-Han Chinese]] [[ethnic nationalist]], [[Han Chinese subgroups|Han Chinese]] [[regionalism (politics)|regionalist]] and [[right-wing]] circles. His highly controversial advocacies and views on [[civilization]]al, [[nation]]al, [[wikt:modern|modern]], [[ethnic]], [[regional]], [[religious]], [[Social class|class]], [[racial]] and [[ideological]] [[identitarianism]]s, strongly influenced both by [[Oswald Spengler]] and [[Ayn Rand]], are dubbed 姨學 (Auntology, the study of Aunt) by his cult followers.

One of the innovations of [[Auntology]] is the division of the [[modern world]] into [[Three-World Model|three spheres]]: 1. The [[Wilsonian]] Sphere: where dominant forces and institutions adhere to common [[Modernity|modern value]]s which are inherent of [[Western world|Western]] and [[Christian]] origins, and maintain a system of [[Common good|collective safety]], 2. The [[Hobbesian]] Sphere: where [[pragmatism|pragmatic]], [[Philosophical realism|realistic]], [[Machiavellian]] and [[opportunistic]] players somehow ensure limited [[endemic]] dominance by submitting to Wilsonian [[supremacism|supremacy]] and 3. The [[Darwinian]] Sphere: where the haphazard exercises of power by [[self-serving]] forces, fall far short of order or [[Civility|modern politics]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.douban.com/note/530931809/|title=略論劉仲敬現象|publisher=}}</ref>

Auntology is also often interpreted by its followers as a call to abandon the construction of a [[Chinese unification|united]] [[Chinese nation]], [[China proper|Chinese state]], [[Han Chinese]] [[Chinese nationalism|nation]], [[Zhonghua Minzu]], [[imperial China]] or [[party state]], for a more [[Fragmentation (economics)|fragmented]] and often [[De-Sinicization|de-sinicize]]d picture of [[Huaxia]], [[East Asian cultural sphere|East Asian sphere]] or collectivity of regional ethnic communities. Though harboring [[romanic]] views on [[tribalism]] and [[Neo-medievalism|medieval feudalism]], Liu in fact rarely agrees with the [[essentialist]] veneration of any particular ethnic culture as [[self-generating]]. Rather, he quite strongly agrees with a [[diffusionist]] position on [[History of globalization|Human Civilization]].

Though influenced heavily by [[Arnold J. Toynbee|Toynbee]], [[Ellsworth Huntington|Huntington]] and [[Oswald Spengler|Spengler]], Liu does not adhere consistently with the Spenglerian and essentialist notion that a set number of civilizations, such as the [[Islamic]] or [[Indo-Aryan languages|Indic]], are discreet organisms fated to be independent of each other. The diffusionist tendency of Liu brings him more affinity with [[Yukichi Fukuzawa]] and [[Ziya Gökalp|Ziya Gok-Alp]] when it comes to the interpretation of [[Nationalism|national]] and [[Clash of Civilizations|civilizational]] identities.

In a way, Liu's theory on world history is a synthesis between [[Spengler]]'s [[wikt:cyclical|cyclical]] model on [[Cultural determinism|civilizations]], and the [[World System Theory]] from the [[political left]].

Liu became a [[born-again]] Christian in April 2016 at a church in [[Sha Tin]], [[Hong Kong]], entering the [[Christendom|Christian fold]] through [[the Shouters]] [[evangelical]] movement. Liu [[emigrated]] to the [[United States]] soon after that.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.letscorp.net/archives/104131|title=劉仲敬:新生|website=牆外樓}}</ref>

==Views and claims==
{{translating|劉仲敬|Chinese|zh}}

===Anti-Chinese nation===
Liu Zhongjing denies China's current mainstream [[Chinese nationalism]] ([[China]] identity, [[Chinese people]] identity, [[Chinese unification]], requirements for [[irredentism|territorial integrity]]), the interpretation of Chinese history by the [[Nationalist Party of China]] and the [[Communist Party of China]], [[anti-Japanese]] trends in modern times, the [[Northern Expedition]], and [[revolutionary diplomacy]] (abolishing all [[unequal treaty|unequal treaties]], repossessing the [[Concession (territory)|concessions]]), and the Chinese Communist Party system ([[Leninist]] rule). He believe that these have caused great calamities in modern China and in the future<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/劉仲敬-文明的灰燼-中國在世界上的位置-35d74fae4d09|title=文明的灰燼|last=劉仲敬|first=Zhongjing Liu {{!}}|date=2016-08-31|website=Zhongjing Liu {{!}} 劉仲敬|access-date=2018-07-13}}</ref>, and believe that between the [[First World War]] and the [[Second World War]], the Chinese Nationalist Party and the Communist Party of China was used and controlled by the [[Soviet Union]], making China as a [[human shield]] of the Soviet Union to against Japan, resulting in an unnecessary [[Second Sino-Japanese War]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/二十世紀遠東的博弈-日本與蘇聯-一-9b43c6f9eaa5|title=二十世紀遠東的博弈 — 日本與蘇聯(一)|last=劉仲敬|first=Zhongjing Liu {{!}}|date=2016-11-29|website=Zhongjing Liu {{!}} 劉仲敬|access-date=2018-07-13}}</ref>

====Deconstruction of Chinese nation and Han nation====

Liu Zhongjing has always stressed that the concept of [[Chinese nationalism]] is just as same as [[Ottomanism]] (empire super-nationalism), is better to fail. Both these nationalisms want to forcibly unify different ethnic groups into one nation, they are castles in the air. The cost of the success for Chinese nation is relying on and binding to [[Leninism]] (only [[Communist International]] has the ability to invent China, if Chinese reject the Communist International, they will attribute themselves to nothingness);<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/共產國際與中華民族-c1dd8aa692a7|title=共產國際與中華民族|last=劉仲敬|first=Zhongjing Liu {{!}}|date=2017-01-18|website=Zhongjing Liu {{!}} 劉仲敬|access-date=2018-07-13}}</ref> And even if Han nationalists (pan-cultural nationalism) are willing to abandon land outside [[China proper]], the ambition is still too great. Similar to [[Pan-Slavism|Slavic nation]], [[Pan-Germanism|German nation]], and [[Pan-Latinism|Latin nation]], Han nation should not be unified.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/民族發明分類學-becac22fddfd|title=民族發明分類學|last=劉仲敬|first=Zhongjing Liu {{!}}|date=2018-01-29|website=Zhongjing Liu {{!}} 劉仲敬|access-date=2018-07-13}}</ref> He also pointed out that the reason why Chinese nation has fallen into the present is the inevitable result of that [[Chiang Kai-shek]] has often compared himself to [[Mustafa Kemal Atatürk|Kemal]], but refused to abandon Ottomanism and invent small nation as Kemal did. If Chiang Kai-shek willing to admit [[Manchuria|Manchurian]] independence, willing to abandon the invention of Chinese nation, and willing to invent a [[Wuyue|Goetian nation]], his reign in the five provinces of [[Jiangnan|Jiangdong]] would be difficult to subvert.

Moreover, the [[Anti-Chinese]] actions of [[Southeast Asia]] must be attributed to [[Chinese nationalism]], [[communism]], and [[Leninism]]. Chinese nationalism makes China believe that all Chinese ethnic people in the world belong to China's government, causing the crisis that Southeast Asia was annexed by China, the dependence of Chinese nationalism on Leninism means that if Southeast Asian countries want to [[Anti-communism|oppose communism]], they must oppose Chinese.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/國際主義格局下的東亞民族構建-下-9c2125a0b81|title=國際主義格局下的東亞民族構建(下)|last=劉仲敬|first=Zhongjing Liu {{!}}|date=2017-10-31|website=Zhongjing Liu {{!}} 劉仲敬|access-date=2018-07-13}}</ref>

{{cquote|First of all, [[Han Chinese|Han]] is not a nation, not even an ethnic groups. It is anti-ethnic, it is an empire, it is the successor of [[Qin empire]], is anti-ethnic things. If you say that [[Qu Yuan]] belongs only to [[Chu (state)|Chu state]], [[Lu Zhonglian]] only belongs to [[Qi (state)|Qi state]], and [[Meng Tian]] only belongs to [[Qin (state)|Qin state]]. They each have their own special ethnic identity, and this point can still be set up. However, in the real history, Han dynasty was an unrooted universal empire, it is difficult to find a special community identity for all citizens.}}

====Fellah theory====

Liu Zhongjing believes that the Imperial Empire that began with [[Qin dynasty]] belonged to the [[Fellah]] nation. The Fellah Empires actually have only population, not nation. People do not live in their own community city-state, but live naked under the administrative power of the imperial bureaucracy. The Fellah empire feared locality, so it turns the area outside the capital into [[province]]s, uses the [[county system]] to format places. The more people who have survived in the Fellahization state, the more [[morality|primitive qualities]] they have forgotten.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/不進則退學-2111908906ee|title=不進則退學|last=劉仲敬|first=Zhongjing Liu {{!}}|date=2017-11-15|website=Zhongjing Liu {{!}} 劉仲敬|access-date=2018-07-13}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/一點人生的經驗-如何統治中國和造福世界-624ddd57506f|title=一點人生經驗:如何統治中國和造福世界|last=劉仲敬|first=Zhongjing Liu {{!}}|date=2017-02-15|website=Zhongjing Liu {{!}} 劉仲敬|access-date=2018-07-13}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://plus.google.com/+夏格明/posts/325ikLSJEb1|title=姨:費拉的性格是欺軟怕硬而且能力很差,匪諜習慣依靠這種人。他們的地位就是小推車農民工,沒有工資和軍餉,送到朝鮮去消耗美國人的子彈。如果你心軟不肯打,他就贏...|access-date=2018-07-13|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://zine.la/article/1e18a1b04db411e7ad3d52540d79d783|title=【特典】身邊都是費拉怎麼辦?——阿姨教你人生經驗(一) {{!}} 冬川豆 {{!}} 人間朝暮's Zine column|website=zine.la|language=en|access-date=2018-07-13}}</ref>

{{cquote|There is no [[Han Chinese|Han nation]], there is only the Han people {{=}} the Fellah people {{=}} the legal captivities.}}

{{cquote|The Chinese know that they are despicable [[slave]]s. If someone treats them by their true [[social class|class identity]], they will secretly admire them, they feel that these people have eyesight and judgments about other things are probably right. If someone respects the Chinese and regards them as lives with souls, conscience, and shame, the Chinese will doubt the judgment of these people for the same reason, including the judgment of other things not related to China, not only they will not trust and follow these people, but they will feel that these people are suitable for deception and plunder.}}

{{cquote|Fellah don't distinguish weakness and generosity. If you don't abuse them, they will bite you. Commie abuse them, you can't blame commie completely. You want to keep Fellah away from you, so you should not make them think you've lost, and you have to pretend to be a winner. This is the opposite of dealing with the [[white left]]... If he apologizes for his insulting of China, the [[anti-Japanese]] masses must say that he is not sincere, and then he must be beaten by insatiable masses, until he can't stand, turn his face again. If he uses rogue method to deal with the untouchables, they would rather suspect that people backstage are very hard. If I apologize for my [[Nanking Massacre]] denial in that year, then I would be finished. Now, Fellah think I am an agent of the Party's big brother.}}

{{cquote|Fellah are actually very easy to be manipulated or exploited. They have no personal rights or boundary consciousness. It can be said to be a species that will never be able to grow spiritually. If you are determined to exploit or to infinity expand your own interests, living in Fellah people is extremely beneficial to you. You can easily exploit them or dominate them, just use their character weaknesses to play with them, use them as your tools, and put their interests in your own name. But there is a bit bad, after you do this, yourself will be trapped in the cycle of [[Sadomasochism|SM]], you will inevitably fall into their circle. One day, you will run into SM masters who are more powerful than you. One day, you will encounter SM masters who are more powerful than you, and you will end up becoming the object of being played.}}

====Nukelogy====

Liu Zhongjing believes that "[[nuclear attack|nukelogy]]" is equivalent to [[God]]'s [[justice]] and advocates to "nuke" the east from [[Xi'an]].{{Citation needed|date=July 2018}}

{{cquote|
I thought about this in [[Harbin]] yesterday, questioning the nukelogy is very close to questioning the justice of God.

Since [[Japan]]'s brief impulsive bloody-vigor sins need (to nuke) [[Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki|Hiroshima]], [[Shina (word)|Shina]]'s long-term deliberate sinister deceit must need (to nuke) the east from [[Xi'an]]-stan, the relative degree of the two must exceed the fate of [[Germany]] and [[Russia]], otherwise it cannot satisfy the so-called [[Proportionality (law)|proportional principle]] of jurisprudence.
}}

===Views on the First Opium War===

Liu Zhongjing thinks that the [[First Opium War]] "It is not the British initiative to expand, it is the result of in the process of maintaining free trades, the British have been forced to administer judicial arbitration in countries that are really unruly. In general, the mistakes made by those rulers infringe private property and seizure foreign property, or bankrupt because of squandering waste, cause implicated in foreign business, unable to afford debts, etc."<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/letscorp_archive/archives/95146|title=劉仲敬:簡明20世紀東亞史|work=牆外樓|access-date=2018-07-13|language=zh-CN}}</ref>

===Cathaysianism===
<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing/諸亞與諸夏-e8748e3b7633|title=諸亞與諸夏|last=劉仲敬|first=Zhongjing Liu {{!}}|date=2016-11-27|website=Zhongjing Liu {{!}} 劉仲敬|access-date=2018-07-13}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://medium.com/@cathaysianculturesoc/諸亞與諸夏發刊詞-8829ca4e267e|title=諸亞與諸夏發刊詞|last=諸夏文化傳播協會|date=2017-02-12|website=諸夏文化傳播協會|access-date=2018-07-13}}</ref>

===Prediction of "the Great Flood"===
<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.letscorp.net/archives/104149|title=阿姨北京之行秘傳心法要義-牆外樓|work=牆外樓|access-date=2018-07-13}}</ref>

===Comments on ISIS===

===Defense of Japanese war crimes===

==Reviews==

{{Empty section|date=June 2018}}

==Literary works==
{{Update|section|date=June 2018}}

===Translation===
* [[David Hume]]'s [[The History of England]]

===Original===
* The Causes and Outcomes of Events during The Republic of China
* The Childhood of Parliamentarian Politics
* The Paths of India and Byzantium and The Gods' Rulings on Their Fates
* Ayn Rand: Biography and Ideas
* Classic and History: Historical Construct in The Huaxia World
* Foresights and Hindsights: Ideas, Patterns and Traditions
* The Internal Rationales of Hume's Historiography
* Pure Ideals, Adulterated Experience: The Encounter between Political Philosophy and History
* Christ's American vs. Rome's America: Lincoln's Two Faces and The Regeneration of Caesarism
* From Huaxia to China.

==References==
{{reflist|1}}

==External links==
* https://twitter.com/LiuZhongjing
* https://medium.com/@LiuZhongjing
* https://www.smashwords.com/profile/view/williamliu

{{Authority control}}

{{improve categories|date=February 2018}}

{{DEFAULTSORT:Liu Zhongjing, William}}
[[Category:1974 births]]
[[Category:Living people]]
[[Category:21st-century American historians]]
[[Category:21st-century American non-fiction writers]]
[[Category:21st-century Chinese historians]]
[[Category:21st-century Chinese writers]]
[[Category:21st-century Christians]]
[[Category:21st-century American male writers]]
[[Category:American Christians]]
[[Category:American historians]]
[[Category:American libertarians]]
[[Category:American people of Chinese descent]]
[[Category:American political writers]]
[[Category:Chinese emigrants to the United States]]
[[Category:Chinese male writers]]
[[Category:Chinese non-fiction writers]]
[[Category:Chinese political writers]]
[[Category:Converts to Christianity]]
[[Category:Hong Kong Christians]]
[[Category:Hong Kong historians]]
[[Category:Hong Kong writers]]
[[Category:Paleolibertarianism]]
[[Category:Sichuan University alumni]]